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  1. Rugo H.S., "Cancer" in 2008 Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment (McPhee, S.J. and Papadakis, M.A., eds; Tierney, L.M. Jr, senior editor) McGraw-Hill Lange, 2008, New York 47th edition, pp. 1387-1390.

  2. SEER (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results), 2008

  3. Information from SEER Cancer Statistics Review and reference 1.

  4. SEER graphs (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results)

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    6a.  Meyer L Melanoma, Brown and Red, National Cancer Institute, . April 2012, public domain.

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    6d.  Squamous cell carcinoma, ; . National Cancer Institute, NCI Visuals Online, January 2001, public domain.

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    9a. Cantanese MT Kopp M Uryu K Rice C Electron micrographs of hepatitis C virus purified from cell culture. Courtesy of the Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University. .

    9b. Papilloma Virus (HPV).  Electron micrograph of a negatively stained human papilloma virus.  National Cancer Institute, NCI Visuals Online, public domain,October 1986.

    9c.  Gross L This electron microscopic image of two Epstein Barr Virus virions (viral particles) shows round capsids—protein-encased genetic material—loosely surrounded by the membrane envelope ( ) DOI:   10.1371/journal.pbio.0030430.g001; (2005) Virus Proteins Prevent Cell Suicide Long Enough to Establish Latent Infection. PLoS Biol 3(12): e430 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030430 .

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  16. Malignant Lymphoma, (Medline Plus; U.S. NLM and NIH), [], updated, 5/1/2006, Benjamin Taragin, M.S., Department of Radiology, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY. Review by Verimed Healthcare Network, A.D.A.M.

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    1. Singh P, Rubin N Insulinlike growth factors and binding proteins in colon cancer.  Gastroenterology,1993; 105: 1218-1237.

    2. Werner H, Le Roith D. The insulin like growth factor I receptor signaling pathways are important for tumorigenesis and inhibition of apoptosis. Crit Rev Oncog 1997; 8: 71-92.

    3. Sandhu MS, Dunger DB, Giovannucci EL.  Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding proteins, their biological interactions and colorectal cancer. J. Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 972-980.

  18. Borofsky ND, Vogelman JH, Krajcik RA, Orentreich N. Utility of insulin-like growth factor-1 as a biomarker in epidemiologic studies. Clinical Chemistry 48, No. 12, 2002.

    1. Yu H, Rohan R. Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in  cancer development and progression [Review] J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 1472-1489.

    2. Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Gann PH, Ma J, Wilkinson, P. et al. Plasma insulin-like growth factor and prostate cancer risk; a prospective study. Science 1998: 279: 563-566.

    3. Kraaks R, Toniolo P, Akhmedkhanov A, Lukanova A, Biessy et al.  Serum C-peptide, insulin like growth factor (IGF-I), IGF-binding proteins, and colorectal cancer risk in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 92: 1592-1600.

    4. Langlois JA, Rosen CJ, Viser M, Hannan MT, Harris T, Wilson PWF, et al. Association between insulin-like growth factor 1 and bone mineral density in older women and men: the Framingham  Heart Study. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83:4257-4262.

    5. Aleman A, Verhaar HJJ De Haan EHF, De Vries WR, Sampson MM, Drent ML et al. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and cognitive function in healthy older men. J Clin Endorinol Metab 1999; 84: 471-475.

    6. Janssen JAMJL, Stolk RP, Pols HAP, Grobbee DE, Lamberts SWJ. Serum total IGF-I, free IGF-I, and IGFBP1 levels in an elderly population.  Relation to cardiovascular risk factors and disease.Arterioscler Throm Vasc Biol 1998; 18:277-282.

  19. Chynoweth DP "Lecture 7. Principles and Methods of Biotechnology", University of Florida, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, .

  20. Medical Ecology: Stratospheric Ozone Depletion .

  21. Mitchell, D "DNA Damage and Repair" Ecology of UV .

  22. Strickland PT,  Kensler TW, "Environmental Factors" in Clinical Oncology, 3rd Edition (Abeloff MD, Armirtage, JO, Niederhuber, JE, Kastan MB, McKenna, WG, eds), Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone, Philadelphia, 2004, pp. 173-189.

    22a.  Zusters L Merson J Arsenic poisoning the groundwater in Bangladesh, .

    22b   Meharg, Andrew (2005). Venomous Earth – How Arsenic Caused The World's Worst Mass Poisoning. Macmillan Science.

  23. Chen CL, Hsu LI, Chiou HY, Hsueh YM, Chen SY, Wu MM, Chen CJ Ingested Arsenic, Cigarette Smoking, and Lung Cancer Risk:  A Follow-up Study in Arseniasis-Endemic Areas in Taiwan, JAMA, 2004;292:2984-2990.

  24. Chou WC, Hawkins AL, Barrett JF, Griffin CA, Dang, CV Arsenic Inhibition of Telomerase Transcription Leads to Genetic Instability. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, November 2001: 108(10), 1541-1547.

  25. Arsenic-based Medicine Visible Proofs:  Forensic Views of the Body, National Library of Medicine (

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    26a. Hulpiau P, van Roy F (February 2009). "Molecular evolution of the cadherin superfamily". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 41 (2): 349–69. (

    26b.  Angst B, Marcozzi C, Magee A (February 2001). "The cadherin superfamily: diversity in form and function". J Cell Sci 114 (Pt 4): 629–41.  (

    26c  Chen Jieming "Cartoon representation of a repeating unit in the extracellular E-cadherin ectodomain of the mouse found ing the PDB 3Q2V, rendered using Pymol (DeLano Scientific) . (The paper in which this is published is Structure. 2011 Feb 9;19(2):244-56. Harrison OJ, Jin X, Hong S et. al. (2011); Jieming Chen rendered this from PyMol, using the PDB file from the work of Harrison OJ, Jin X, Hong S, Bahna F, Ahlsen G, Brasch J, Wu Y, Vendome J, Felsovalyi K, Hampton CM, Troyanovsky RB, Ben-Shaul A, Frank J, Troyanovsky SM, Shapiro L, Honig B.

    26d  Ruiz M  The diagram shows a cell-cell junction called adherens or zonula adherens. It also contains the main proteins involved in it." .

  27. Wijnhoven BPL, Dinjens WNM, Pignatelli M Review:  "E-cadherin-catenin cell-cell adhesion complex and human cancer" British Journal of Surgery 87(8) 2000,  pp 992-1005

  28. Zoroddu MA, Schinocca L, Kowalik-Jankowska T, Kozlowski H, Salnikow K, Mosta M. Molecular Mechanisms in Nickel Carcinogenesis:  Modeling Ni(II) Binding Site in Histone H4. Environ. Health Perspect. Supplements 110(S5), October, 2002.

    28a. Ruiz M "A comprehensive diagram of a human cell nucleus." .

  29. Costa M, Yan Y, Zhao D, Sainikow K Molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis: Gene silencing by nickel delivery to the nucleus and gene activation/inactivation by nickel-induced cell signaling. J. Environ. Monit., 2003, 4, 222-223.

  30. Figure Griffiths et al (2004); text annotation by Steven M. Carr (2007)

  31. Norseth T "The carcinogenicity of chromium" Environ Health perspect (1981) 40: 121-131.

  32. O'Brien TJ, Ceryak S, Patierno SR Complexities of chromium carcinogenesis:  role of cellular response, repair and recovery mechanisms. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanism of Mutagenesis 522(1-2) 2003, 3-36.

  33. Zhitkovich A, Quievryn G, Messer J, Motylevich Z Reductive Activation with Cysteine Represents a Chromium (III)-Dependent Pathway in the Induction Genotoxicity by Carcinogenic Chromium(VI), Environ. Health Perspect. Supplements 110(5) October 2002.

  34. Yang H, Bocchetta M, Kroczynska B, Elmishad AG, Chen Y, Liu Z, Bubici C, Mossman BT, Pass HI, Testa JR, Franzoso G, Carbone M. TNF-α inhibits asbostos-induced cytotoxicity via  a NF-κB-dependent pathway, a possible mechanims for asbestosis oncogenesis PNAS 103(27) 2006, pp 10397-10402.

    34a.  Gaillard, F Coronal reformat of a CT of the chest in a patient with left-sided mesothelioma. .

    34b.  Heilman J Mesothelioma of the left lower lung, December, 2010. .

    34c.  Fruitsmaak S Mesothelioma, coronal CT scan. .

    34d.  Hammar S Serosal membranes:  diffuse pleural mesothelioma, extensive involvement of the pericardium.  Pathology image database, Image# 410524, The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), public domain. .

    34e.  Robertolyra Mesothelioma .

    34f.  Farivar A Mesothelioma and malignant pleural issues, .

  35. Gilmore TD The Rel/NF-kappaB Signal Transduction Pathway, .

  36. Strickland PT,  Kensler TW, Genesis of Cancer B: "Environmental Factors" in Clinical Oncology, 4th Edition (Abeloff MD, Armirtage, JO, Niederhuber, JE, Kastan MB, McKenna, WG, eds), Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone, Philadelphia, 2008, pp. 125-138.

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  40. Holmila R, Cyr D, Luce D, Heikkila P, Dictor M, Steiniche T, Stjernvall T, Bornholdt J, Wallin H, Wolff H, Husgafvel-Pursianen K. COX-2 and p53 in human sinonasal cancer:  COX-2 expression is associated with adenocarcinoma histology and wood-dust exposure, Int J Cancer. 2008 May 1; 122(9): 2154-2159.

  41. Smyth EM, FitzGerald GA The Eicosanoids:  Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, Leukotrienes, and Related Compounds (in Basic and Clinical Pharmacology,10th edition, edited by Katzung,BG) McGraw-Hill Medical, Lange Series, New York, 2007, p 294.

  42. Selected Non-Heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons:  United Nations Environment Programme; International Labour Organization; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; Environmental Health Criteria 202; World Health Organization, Geneva, 1998

  43. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons:  Toxicology [Information System for the Evaluation of Health Risks Associated with Occupational Exposure to Mutagens / Carcinogens;  Carcinogenic Risk in Occupational Settings, constructed and maintained by a collaborative effort of scientists from several Belgian Universities: KUL, RUG, UCL, ULg, VUB; 2008.

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  45. Jung I, Messing E Molecular Mechanisms and Pathways in Bladder Cancer Development and Progression Cancer Control 7(4) 2000 325-334.

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  47. Bostwick Laboratories Normal and Abnormal Urothelial Cells

  48. Yoon BL, Guang XL, Kitada K, Kawasaki, Y, Igarashi K, Kodama Y, Inoue T, Kobayashi K, Kanno J, Kim DY, Inoue T, Hirabayashi Y Mechanisms of benzene-induced hematoxicity and leukemogenicity:  cDNA microarray analyses using mouse bone marrow tissue-Toxicogenomics Environ Health Perspect 111: 1411-1420 (2003).

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